what is interactiveness in cooperative learning


Meaning of interactiveness. Cooperative learning exercises can be as simple as a five minute in class exercise or as complex as a project which crosses class periods. From Table 1 it may be seen that cooperation promotes considerable greater effort to achieve than do competitive or individualistic efforts. How teachers structure student-student interaction patterns has a lot to say about how well students learn, how they feel about school and the teacher, how they feel about each other, and how much self-esteem they have. One indication of engagement in learning is time on task. Cooperative learning groups are both an academic support system (every student has someone who is committed to helping him or her learn) and a personal support system (every student has someone who is committed to him or her as a person). In competitive situations, the opposite psychological processes may be found. The neurotic personality of our time. Group members realize, therefore, that each person’s efforts benefit not only him- or herself, but all other group members as well. When utilizing these three types of cooperative learning, any learning situations in any subject area with any age students and with any curriculum can be structured cooperatively. An important aspect of school life is engagement in learning. Stronger effects are found for peer support than for superior (teacher) support. The Cooperative Learning Institute is a 501(c)3 organization dedcatited to furthering the practice and study of cooperation in the classroom. Interactivity. Teachers shoul… The feedback received during group processing is aimed at improving the use of social skills and is a form of individual accountability. The research on social interdependence includes both theoretical and demonstration studies conducted in educational, business, and social service organizations. For more details, see our Privacy Policy. What does interactiveness mean? Cooperative learning is presently used in schools and universities in every part of the world, in every subject area, and with every age student. Cooperative learning is an extremely useful strategy in that it involves students in established, sustained learning groups or teams. It doesn’t have to be perfect but can serve as an opener for a discussion about important aspects of BRAVE. d.  The pairs create a new answer that is superior to each member’s initial formulation by integrating the two answers, building on each other’s thoughts, and synthesizing. For thousands of years, humans havc recognised the value of cooperation in a broad range of endeavours, including education. If learners are provided access to correct … Each student formulates his or her answer. Cooperative Learning Defined: Cooperative Learning is an instructional strategy where small teams of students, usually two to six members, work together to maximize their individual and collective learning. More specifically, psychological health is the ability (cognitive capacities, motivational orientations, and social skills) to build, maintain, and appropriately modify interdependent relationships with others to succeed in achieving goals (Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). Students are sometimes individually responsible for their part or role in the assignment, and sometimes they are held accountable as an entire group. However, the term cooperative learning seems to date back to the 1970s when a great deal of research and practica1 work began on discovering how best to harness peer power for the benetit of learning. Also, Kolawole posited that cooperative learning strategy was more effective than competitive learning strategy in teaching of Mathematics at secondary school level. The procedure is as follows. Permanent cooperative base groups provide the arena in which caring and committed relationships can be created that provide the social support needed to improve attendance, personalize the educational experience, increase achievement, and improve the quality of school life. Assessing students’ learning and helping students process how well their groups functioned. There is nothing magical about putting students in groups. As Table 2 shows, cooperation generally promotes greater interpersonal attraction among individuals than does competitive or individualistic efforts (effect sizes = 0.67 and 0.60 respectively). Teachers may also teach the concepts and strategies required to complete the assignment. In cooperative situations, students’ actions substitute for each other, students are inducible, and a positive cathexis is created toward other’s actions. Johnson D. W., & Johnson, R.  (1989). Promotive, oppositional, and no interaction have differential effects on the outcomes of the situation (see Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). Information and translations of interactiveness in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Some specific recommendations resulting from the above-mentioned challenges are that teachers should focus on: Ideally, cooperative or collaborative learning activities would invite students to be more active participants in their own learning, to share and discuss their ideas, to engage in argumentation and debate, to play varying roles within the group, and to internalize their learning. When more directly practice is connected to theory, furthermore, the more likely practice will be refined, upgraded, and improved over the years. Social interdependence:  The interrelationships among theory, research, and practice. The research has been conducted over twelve decades by many different researchers with markedly different theoretical and practical orientations working in different settings and countries. Cooperative learning is supported by one of the strongest research traditions in education, with thousands of studies conducted across a wide range of subject areas, age groups, ability levels and cultural backgrounds. An extensive literature search was conducted aimed at identifying all the available studies from published and nonpublished sources. There are important cognitive activities and interpersonal dynamics that can only occur when students promote each other’s learning. Listening to student discussions can give instructors direction and insight into how well students understand the concepts and material being as well as increase the individual accountability of participating in the discussions. a.  Summarize the material just presented. The lecture is followed by a formal cooperative learning lesson. This is one of the largest bodies of research within psychology and education. Learn more about reasons to use cooperative learning How to Use Cooperative Learning. Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (5th Ed.). I think 4 is a wonderful group size, perfect to pair off or work as a whole group. The more positive the relationships among students and between students and faculty, the lower the absenteeism and dropout rates and the greater the commitment to group goals, feelings of personal responsibility to the group, willingness to take on difficult tasks, motivation and persistence in working toward goal achievement, satisfaction and morale, willingness to endure pain and frustration on behalf of the group, willingness to defend the group against external criticism or attack, willingness to listen to and be influenced by colleagues, commitment to each other’s professional growth and success, and productivity (Johnson & F. Johnson, 2009). Also, the success of each member depends on the group’s success. There are hundreds of studies indicating that cooperation, compared to competitive and individualistic efforts, tends to result in greater effort to achieve, more positive relationships, and greater psychological health. Since cooperation and conflict are inherently related, the procedures and skills for managing conflicts constructively are especially important for the long-term success of learning groups. If there is no positive interdependence, there is no cooperation. It is through promoting each other’s learning face-to-face that members become personally committed to each other as well as to their mutual goals. Unit No. Formal cooperative learning consists of students working together, for one class period to several weeks, to achieve shared learning goals and complete jointly specific tasks and assignments (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 2008). This study explores the effectiveness of a cooperative learning (CL) approach, where students work together and elaborate concepts of physics. A theory of cooperation and competition. The samples studied included middle-class junior-high students, middle-class high school seniors, high-school age juvenile prisoners, adult prisoners, Olympic ice-hockey players, adult step-couples, and business executives in China. learning in an online and often asynchronous environment. The parameters often vary, as students can work collaboratively on a variety of problems, ranging from simple math problems to large assignments such as proposing environmental solutions on a national level. The third essential component of cooperative learning is promotive interaction, preferably face-to-face. Teachers (a) formulate both academic and social skills objectives, (b) decide on the size of groups, (c) choose a method for assigning students to groups, (d) decide which roles to assign group members, (e) arrange the room, and (f) arrange the materials students need to complete the assignment. Such individual accountabilityensures that the pairs take the tasks seriously and check each other to ensure that both are prepared to answer. The second essential element of cooperative learning is individual and group accountability. Finally, there is evidence that cooperation promotes more frequent use of higher level reasoning strategies than do competitive (effect size = 0.93) or individualistic (effect size = 0.97) efforts. Now, if you don’t have a perfect amount, an extra group of 3 or 5 isn’t bad. The impact of cooperative learning on achievement means that if schools wish to prepare students to take proficiency tests to meet local and state standards, the use of cooperative learning should dominate instructional practice. Each member must be accountable for contributing his or her share of the work (which ensures that no one “hitch-hikes” on the work of others). Cooperative base groups are long-term, heterogeneous cooperative learning groups with stable membership (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 2008). Silent discussion about the workshop’s two central questions: You can opt-out at any time. Tailor cooperative learning lessons to unique instructional needs, circumstances, curricula, subject areas, and students. Mastering the basic elements of cooperation allows teachers to: 1. From the work of Lewin’s students and colleagues, such as Ovisankian, Lissner, Mahler, and Lewis, it may be concluded that it is the drive for goal accomplishment that motivates cooperative and competitive behavior. David W Johnson and Roger T JohnsonWithout the cooperation of its members society cannot survive, and the society of man has survived because the cooperativeness of its members made survival possible…. 7 COOPERATIVE LEARNING Written by: Dr. Fazal-ur-Rahman Reviewed by: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Javed This data is used to intervene in groups and to guide group processing. Intermittent Focused Discussions:  Teachers divide the lecture into 10 to 15 minute segments. The group must be accountable for achieving its goals. Quality of relationships includes such variables as interpersonal attraction, liking, cohesion, esprit-de-corps, and social support. Teachers have to teach teamwork skills just as purposefully and precisely as teachers do academic skills. Cooperative experiences tend to promote greater social support than does competitive (effect-size = 0.62) or individualistic (effect-size = 0.70) efforts. (noun) Words near interactiveness in the Dictionary The task requires students to summarize what they have learned from the lecture and integrate it into existing conceptual frameworks. This includes orally explaining how to solve problems, discussing the nature of the concepts being learned, teaching one’s knowledge to classmates, and connecting present with past learning. The fourth essential element of cooperative learning is teaching students the required interpersonal and small group skills. Elementary, secondary, and university teaching was dominated by competitive and individualistic learning. Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals. When international agreements are made and when international efforts to achieve mutual goals (such as environmental protection) occur, these five elements must be carefully implemented and maintained. The group work is an integral part of, not an adjunct to, the achievement of the learning goals of the class. New York: Norton. Diagnose the problems some students may have in working together and intervene to increase the effectiveness of the student learning groups. The procedure is: a. When the five basic elements may be effectively implemented in formal cooperative learning situations (formal cooperative learning may be used to structure most learning situations), informal cooperative learning situations (informal cooperative learning may be used to make didactic lessons cooperative), and cooperative base groups (which are used to personalize a class and the school). Human Relations, 2, 129-152. The studies were conducted with different durations, lasting from one session to 100 sessions or more. They worry their children will not engage, work, and learn in collaboration with others. The close relationship between theory, research, and practice makes cooperative learning somewhat unique. It is much more than group work, though that is a part of it. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Johnson, D.W.  (2009). In the mid-1960s, cooperative learning was relatively unknown and largely ignored by educators. When they think they have the correct answer, they have to explain their reasoning to the teacher who will choose the reporting student. Pre and Post-Tests: Before the session begins, learners can be given a 3-5 question quiz or asked to list 3-5 points they would cover in an essay particular question. The diversity of these studies gives social interdependence theory wide generalizability and considerable external validity. The arrangement of the room can create environmental interdependence and provide the teacher with easy access to observe each group, which increases individual accountability and provides data for group processing. In order to set yourself and your students up for success, try the BRAVE Workshop. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Friends are a developmental advantage (see Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). The absence of interdependence indicates no connection between people’s attempts to achieve their goals. Informal cooperative learning ensures students are actively involved in understanding what is being presented. Block 2 Cooperative learning: 2.1 Classroom organisation 2.2 Educational interaction and interactiveness: the construction of knowledge in the classroom 2.3 Teaching and learning in the context of the classroom: CLM. 4. Closure Focused Discussion:  Teachers give students an ending discussion task lasting four to five minutes. In addition, teachers collect specific data on promotive interaction, the use of targeted social skills, and the engagement in the desired interaction patterns. In M. Jones (Ed. Cooperative learning is inherently more complex than competitive or individualistic learning because students have to engage simultaneously in taskwork and teamwork. Research on social interdependence has been conducted in numerous cultures in North America (with Caucasian, Black-American, Native-American, and Hispanic populations) and countries from North, Central, and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, the Pacific Rim, and Africa. 3. In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for each student. Students should be grouped for instruction to maximize opportunities to learn, and the type of grouping can produce different results based on the circumstances. Together they provide an integrated system for instructional organization and design (as well as classroom management). Near the end of the class session another short lecture may be delivered with the use of informal cooperative learning. Much training time is devoted to helping teachers arrange appropriate interactions between students and materials (i.e., textbooks, curriculum programs) and some time is spent on how teachers should interact with students, but how students should interact with one another is relatively ignored. If correct, the group will receive another problem. Have you ever participated in a group project or on a committee to achieve some task? Monitoring students’ learning and intervening to provide assistance in (a) completing the task successfully or (b) using the targeted interpersonal and group skills effectively.While conducting the lesson, teachers monitor each learning group and intervene when needed to improve taskwork and teamwork. Introductory Focused Discussion:  Teachers assign students to pairs or triads and explain (a) the task of answering the questions in a four to five minute time period and (b) the positive goal interdependence of reaching consensus. In addition, students working cooperatively tended to be more involved in activities and tasks, attach greater importance to success, and engage in more on-task behavior and less apathetic, off-task, disruptive behaviors. In your classroom you should really only have groups of 4 students. Positive interdependence tends to result in promotive interaction, negative interdependence tends to result in oppositional or contrient interaction, and no interdependence results in an absence of interaction. Cooperation and trust: Some theoretical notes. In order to structure cooperative learning effectively, teachers need to understand how tostructure positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive interaction, appropriate use of social skills, and group processing into learning situations. (1966). Theorizing on social interdependence began in the early 1900s, when one of the founders of the Gestalt School of Psychology, Kurt Koffka, proposed that groups were dynamic wholes in which the interdependence among members could vary. Within cooperative situations, individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members. Cooperative learningis an organized and structured way to use small groups to enhance student learning and interdependence. The most important goal structure, and the one that should be used the majority of the time in learning situations, is cooperation. ), a short documentary video that shows important features of good collaboration, three or more challenging problems that students won’t be able to solve alone, and a few short videos depicting students like yours collaborating together. ), Nebraska symposium on motivation, (pp. Group members must know how to provide effective leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict-management, and be motivated to use the prerequisite skills. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group. Cooperative and Collaborative Learning Lopez, Maryan Joy 2. The fundamental premise of social interdependence theory is that the way in which goals are structured determines how individuals interact, and those interaction patterns create outcomes. Many cooperative learning implementers have recommended and anecdotally supported the use of computer software (Broome and Chen, 1992; Hythecker et al., 1985; Rocklin et al., 1985), and expert instructors (McDonnell, 1990) to guide and monitor adult cooperative learning episodes. ConditionsAchievementInterpersonal AttractionSocial SupportSelf-Esteem, Note:  Coop = Cooperation, Comp = Competition, Ind = Individualistic, Reprinted By Permission From:  Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. (1989). The diversity of this research provides considerable generalizabiity to the findings. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. It arranges and mixes students of different level of ability and learning into groups. Positive interdependence creates a commitment to other people’s success as well as one’s own and is the heart of cooperative learning. Typically, cooperative base groups are heterogeneous in membership (especially in terms of achievement motivation and task orientation), meet regularly (for example, daily or biweekly), and last for the duration of the class (a semester or year) or preferably for several years. If one fails, all fail. Definition of interactiveness in the Definitions.net dictionary. The first issue is understanding the nature of social interdependence. Materials on cooperative learning have been translated into dozens of languages. Each may cause the other. It should not be. The longer a cooperative group exists, the more caring their relationships will tend to be, the greater the social support they will provide for each other, the more committed they will be to each other’s success, and the more influence members will have over each other. Cooperative Learning has been proven to be effective for all types of students, including academically gifted, mainstream students and English language learners (ELLs) because it promotes learning and fosters respect and friendships among diverse groups of students. This is the essence of a cooperative learning group in a classroom. Cooperative learning was embedded in methods of teaching English course. In the late 1800’s Triplett in the United States, Turner in England, and Mayer in Germany conducted a series of studies on the factors associated with competitive performance. Depending on whether individuals promote or obstruct each other’s goal accomplishments, there is substitutability, cathexis, and inducibility.

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